Micronutrient accumulation and depletion in schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism and Parkinson's disease?
Zinc has several crucial functions in brain development and maintenance: it binds to p53, preventing it from binding to supercoiled DNA and ensuring that p53 cause the expression of several paramount genes, such as the one that encodes for the type I receptors to pituitary adenine cylase-activator peptide (PACAP), which directs embryonic development of the brain cortex, adrenal glands, etc.; it is required for the production of CuZnSOD and Zn-thionein, which are essential to prevent oxidative damage; it is required for many proteins, some of them with Zn fingers, many of them essential enzymes for growth and homeostasis. For example, the synthesis of serotonin involves Zn enzymes and since serotonin is necessary for melatonin synthesis, a Zn deficiency may result in low levels of both hormones. Unfortunately, Zn levels tend to be low when there is excess Cu and Cd. Moreover, high estrogen levels tend to cause increased absorption of Cu and Cd, and smoking and eating food contaminated with Cd result in high levels of the latter. Furthermore, ethanol ingestion increases the elimination of Zn and Mg (which acts as a cofactor for CuZnSOD). Increased Cu levels may also be found in people with Wilson's disease, which is a rather rare disease. However, the heterozygote form (only one faulty copy of the chromosome) is not so rare. Therefore, the developing fetus of a pregnant women who is low in Zn and high in Cu may experience major difficulties in the early development of the brain, which may later manifest themselves as schizophrenia, autism or epilepsy. Similarly, a person who gradually accumulates Cu, will tend to experience a gradual depletion of Zn, with a corresponding increase in oxidative damage, eventually leading to Parkinson's disease. Also discussed are the crucial roles of histidine, histamine, vitamin D, essential fatty acids, vitamin E, peroxynitrate, etc. in the possible oxidative damage involved in these mental diseases.