Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2000;26(5-6):301-6.
Cysteine proteinase inhibitor level in tumor and normal tissues in control and cured mice.
Poteryaeva ON, Falameyeva OV, Korolenko TA, Kaledin VI, Djanayeva SJ, Nowicky JW, Sandula J.
Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Physiology, Novosibirsk, Russia.
Cystatin C is the best known extracellular endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitor and has been studied as a possible index of tumor growth and as a marker of the effectiveness of antitumor therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate cystatin C concentrations in murine tumor tissues (compared with other organs not directly involved with tumor development, such as the liver and spleen) during treatment with several antitumor drugs (Ukrain and/or cyclophosphane). Cystatin C concentrations in murine tissues and biological fluids was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay. The cystatin C ELISA test is a sandwich immunoassay, which uses immobilized rabbit antihuman cystatin C Pab and mouse antihuman cystatin C Mab-HRP (monoclonal antibodies, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase). We observed decreased serum cystatin C concentrations compared with controls in all nontreated tumor models: HA-1 hepatoma (solid and ascitic forms), lung adenocarcinoma (solid and ascitic forms) and LS lymphosarcoma. In the ascitic fluid of mice with HA-1 hepatoma the cystatin C concentration was much lower than in the serum of the same mice (about 20-fold lower). In the HA-1 model of hepatoma cells cystatin C concentration decreased about 2-3-fold compared with the control (intact liver) and Ukrain significantly increased the cystatin C concentration. Cyclophosphane treatment of LS lymphosarcoma significantly increased the cystatin C concentration in serum. Cyclophosphane treatment (50 mg/kg, single injection) increased cystatin C by up to 8-fold more in tumor issue. Ukrain treatment of LS lymphosarcoma was also followed by increased levels of cystatin C in tumor tissue (4-fold); cyclophosphane plus Ukrain had a similar positive effect. In the group with LS lymphosarcoma Ukrain or cyclophosphane plus Ukrain treatment induced a significant increase in cystatin C concentration in liver. Liver cystatin C concentration decreased in the HA-1 hepatoma group and treatment with Ukrain or carboxymethylated beta-1, 3-glucan (CMG) increased this index in both groups. Spleen cystatin C concentrations decreased about 5-fold in LS lymphosarcoma compared with controls and combined treatment with cyclophosphane plus Ukrain restored the index to the normal value. We can conclude that both murine tumors studied were characterized by low cystatin C concentrations in tumor tissues and decreased cystatin C concentrations (to a lesser degree) were also observed in liver and spleen as a result of the "toxic" effect of tumor bearing. Effective treatment in all cases (especially with Ukrain or a combination of cyclophosphane plus Ukrain) induced a significant increase in cystatin C. Obviously, the decrease in cystatin C concentration predominantly in tumor tissue was connected with tumor development and restoration of cystatin C level may be used as a marker of efficacy of antitumor therapy.