Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Apr 18.
Serum calcium and the risk of prostate cancer.
Halthur C, Johansson AL, Almquist M, Malm J, Grönberg H, Manjer J, Dickman PW.
of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box
281, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden,
Recent studies have suggested an association between high dietary
intake of calcium and the risk of prostate cancer. Calcium-rich diet
has been suggested to affect the serum levels of Vitamin D, and thereby
promote cancer. We conducted the largest study of the association
between prediagnostic serum levels of calcium and the risk of prostate
OUTLINE: We examined the incidence of prostate cancer in
relation to prediagnostic serum calcium levels in a prospective cohort
study of 22,391 healthy Swedish men, of which 1,539 incident cases of
prostate cancer were diagnosed during the 30 years of follow-up until
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum levels of calcium were
measured at baseline, and categorized into quartiles. Cox regression
was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95%
confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: We found no evidence of an
association between prediagnostic serum levels of calcium and risk of
prostate cancer (HR for trend = 0.99 [95% CI;0.94-1.03]). However, a
moderate significant negative association was seen in men with a BMI
above 25 and aged below 45 years at baseline (Highest vs. lowest
quartile, HR = 0.63 [95% CI;0.40-0.99]).
CONCLUSION: These data do not
support the hypothesis that high serum calcium levels is a risk factor
for prostate cancer. On the contrary, the data suggest that high serum
levels of calcium in young overweight men may be a marker for a
decreased risk of developing prostate cancer.