Vitamin D and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological literature.
Gupta D, Lammersfeld CA, Trukova K, Lis CG.
1Cancer Treatment Centers of America(R) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center, Zion, IL, USA.
cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States.
Prostate cells contain vitamin D receptors as well as enzymes necessary
for vitamin D metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites have an
antiproliferative and a pro-differentiating effect on prostate cancer
cell lines in vitro and in vivo. As a result, there has been an
emerging interest in the potential role of vitamin D in the etiology of
prostate cancer. This review summarizes all available epidemiological
literature on the association between dietary vitamin D, circulating
levels of vitamin D and sunlight exposure in relation to prostate
cancer risk. To place these studies in context, we also provide some
background information on vitamin D, such as its dietary sources,
metabolism, optimal levels, hypovitaminosis and relationship with the
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online
publication, 7 April 2009; doi:10.1038/pcan.2009.7.