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Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul;19(7):468-83.
Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective.
Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland FC.
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Higher serum levels of the main circulating form of vitamin D,
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), are associated with substantially lower
incidence rates of colon, breast, ovarian, renal, pancreatic,
aggressive prostate and other cancers.
findings combined with newly discovered mechanisms suggest a new model
of cancer etiology that accounts for these actions of 25(OH)D and
calcium. Its seven phases are disjunction, initiation, natural
selection, overgrowth, metastasis, involution, and transition
(abbreviated DINOMIT). Vitamin D metabolites prevent disjunction of
cells and are beneficial in other phases.
RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: It is
projected that raising the minimum year-around serum 25(OH)D level to
40 to 60 ng/mL (100-150 nmol/L) would prevent approximately 58,000 new
cases of breast cancer and 49,000 new cases of colorectal cancer each
year, and three fourths of deaths from these diseases in the United
States and Canada, based on observational studies combined with a
randomized trial. Such intakes also are expected to reduce
case-fatality rates of patients who have breast, colorectal, or
prostate cancer by half. There are no unreasonable risks from intake of
2000 IU per day of vitamin D(3), or from a population serum 25(OH)D
level of 40 to 60 ng/mL. The time has arrived for nationally
coordinated action to substantially increase intake of vitamin D and