Br J Cancer. 2008 Feb 26;98(4):792-802. Epub 2008 Feb 5.
20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta, 20-triol, a novel natural product for prostate cancer therapy: activity in vitro and in vivo and mechanisms of action.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, USA.
We recently isolated 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta, 20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD), a natural product from Panax notoginseng, and demonstrated its cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells. Here we report the effects of this compound in vitro and in vivo on human prostate cancer cells, LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and PC3 (androgen-independent), in comparison with three structurally related ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rh2, ginsenoside Rg3, and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol. Of the four test compounds, 25-OCH3-PPD was most potent. It decreased survival, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and led to G1 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. It also decreased the levels of proteins associated with cell proliferation (MDM2, E2F1, cyclin D1, and cdks 2 and 4) and increased or activated pro-apoptotic proteins (cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, -8, and -9). In LNCaP cells, 25-OCH3-PPD inhibited the expression of the androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen. Moreover, 25-OCH3-PPD inhibited the growth of prostate cancer xenograft tumours. Combining 25-OCH3-PPD with conventional chemotherapeutic agents or with radiation led to potent antitumour effects; tumour regression was almost complete following administration of 25-OCH3-PPD and either taxotere or gemcitabine. 25-OCH3-PPD also demonstrated low toxicity to noncancer cells and no observable toxicity in animals. In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that 25-OCH3-PPD is a potential therapeutic agent against both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer.